They bonded not so much on the project itself but over the diverse landscape they passed, observing the collision between city and countryside, and the major transformation that peripheral Chinese villages are undergoing as the forces of urbanisation encroach on rural life.
No comment yet Although many college students today are ignorant concerning the Holocaust from only a generation ago, many seem to think they know enough about the Crusades to use them as an argument for the evil of religion.
The Crusades are often pictured as a series of bloodthirsty religious wars comparable to modern-day jihad terrorism. While there certainly were misdeeds performed during the Crusades— and these should be remembered and judged accordingly— the larger issue is whether or not the Church in general— or even the Crusades in particular— were at fault for such acts.
Hitler and his Nazi state can be properly blamed for the atrocities of the Holocaust, for these vile acts flowed directly from his commands and teachings. But were the Crusades equally to blame for the evil performed while they were enacted, or are they, like other Christian Urban Legends, misunderstood and misrepresented?
Even the Muslims respected the ideals of the Crusades and the piety of the men who fought them. That all changed with the Protestant Reformation. For Martin Luther … argued that to fight the Muslims was to fight Christ himself, for it was he who had sent the Turks to punish Christendom for its faithlessness … It was in the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century that the current view of the Crusades was born.
Since the birth of Islam under Muhammad, Muslims had fought to bring the world under their control. Islam got off to a weak start under Muhammad until violence became the modus operandi.
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By the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks had taken control of Palestine and closed Jerusalem to both Jews and Christians. Crusader territories were established that the Second Crusade was called to reinforce. ByJerusalem and many of these Crusader territories had fallen back into Muslim hands, so a Third Crusade was called to attempt recovery.
This led to the famous clash between the Muslim leader Saladin and Richard the Lionhearted who was not able to regain Jerusalem from the Muslim forces. The Fourth Crusade was launched inbut, for various reasons, ended up coming against Constantinople itself.
This divided both Empire and Church, and the East would never forgive the West for the atrocities that occurred which sadly mirrored previous atrocities from the East. The Fifth Crusade started in in Egypt— largely going nowhere.
The Sixth Crusade in was directed back toward Palestine. It was successful, but short-lived. The and Seventh Crusade lasted fromwith Islamic forces destroying the remnants of the Crusader territories. Crusading came to an end shortly thereafter. When they can cite any at all often involve some of the urban legends surrounding them, the major issues people cite concerning the Crusades.
It is thought that Muslims were the innocent party and the Crusades instigated their hatred of the West, that Crusaders massacred innocent Jews and even other Christians, that children were sent to war, and that all of this was done to get rich.
Perhaps worst of all, the Crusaders thought they would get away with it because the Pope promised them forgiveness of any sin committed while on Crusade.
Like most urban legends, these falsehoods are based on only barely true, mostly misunderstood or misrepresented grounds. The Crusades were not simply unprovoked aggression— as noted above, they were defensive moves to protect Christendom from Muslim invasion.
Muslims had been attacking Christians for more than years before the First Crusade. Further, the idea that the Crusades also sparked Muslim hatred of the West is a historical falsehood.
Muslims did not even seem to take active interest in the Crusades until the early 20th Century. A contemporary Muslim source has been discovered that puts the number of the slain at three thousand. In that time, a city that had to be taken by force belonged to the victorious invaders— including people.
When this goes wrong and so served something of a cultural purpose, this barbaric idea actually helped lessen damaging resistance read Josephus for what happens. Further, Muslim cities that surrendered to the Crusaders were left untouched, the people retained their property, and they were allowed to worship freely.
No Crusade was ever called against the Jewish people. Sadly, there were unprovoked attacks on Jewish settlements by some rogue Crusaders, but the Church actually spoke out against them and some local bishops, clergy, and laity attempted to defend the Jews against them.
Again, this is comparable to modern warfare— sometimes soldiers go off and commit horrible acts during war— but that is not an indictment on the legitimacy of the war itself, nor of the ruling authority provided it did not command nor overlook such acts.
Christians did not go on crusade in order to plunder Muslims or get rich. Many crusading knights ended in bankruptcy. The failure of the Fourth Crusade is often claimed to have been caused by lack of funds. The Seventh Crusade cost more than six times the annual revenue of the crown.
Moreover, the casualty rate for crusaders were very high— some say as high as 75 percent. The prospects for survival were low, much less getting wealthy.Hunslet Urban Framework, Hunslet (United Kingdom) Leeds Beckett University. This is a self-initiated project. Project Documents. The U District Urban Design Framework discusses neighborhood concerns and goals in detail and lays out many of the ideas that would be implemented by the proposed rezone.
Zoning is one of several policy changes aimed at shaping new growth in the U District. We completed streetscape concept plans for Brooklyn Ave NE, NE 43rd St, and NE 42nd St in the spring of framework - Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around urban areas. Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and benjaminpohle.com activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, and peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics.
The Integrated Urban Development FrameworkÂ (IUDF)Â is a policy initiative of the Government of South Africa, coordinated by theÂ Department Of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs(COGTA). Â The IUDF seeks to foster a shared understanding across government and society about how best to manage urbanisation and achieve the goals of economic development, job creation .
May 26, · Intervista con Joshua Bolchover, Badruun Gardi e John Lin di Rural Urban Framework, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong), selezionati per la