He cites Christ and Plato as support for his argument that it is best to speak plainly and tell the truth rather than to lie. He then returns to his story of the first night he spent with the group of pilgrims.
Origins "Nihilism" comes from the Latin nihil, or nothing, which means not anything, that which does not exist. It appears in the verb "annihilate," meaning to bring to nothing, to destroy completely.
Early in the nineteenth century, Friedrich Jacobi used the word to negatively characterize transcendental idealism. It only became popularized, however, after its appearance in Ivan Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons where he used "nihilism" to describe the crude scientism espoused by his character Bazarov who preaches a creed of total negation.
In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement C.
In his early writing, anarchist leader Mikhael Bakunin composed the notorious entreaty still identified with nihilism: The movement advocated a social arrangement based on rationalism and materialism as the sole source of knowledge and individual freedom as the highest goal.
By rejecting man's spiritual essence in favor of a solely materialistic one, nihilists denounced God and religious authority as antithetical to freedom. The movement eventually deteriorated into an ethos of subversion, destruction, and anarchy, and by the late s, a nihilist was anyone associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassination.
The earliest philosophical positions associated with what could be characterized as a nihilistic outlook are those of the Skeptics. Because they denied the possibility of certainty, Skeptics could denounce traditional truths as unjustifiable opinions. Extreme skepticism, then, is linked to epistemological nihilism which denies the possibility of knowledge and truth; this form of nihilism is currently identified with postmodern antifoundationalism.
Nihilism, in fact, can be understood in several different ways. Political Nihilism, as noted, is associated with the belief that the destruction of all existing political, social, and religious order is a prerequisite for any future improvement.
Ethical nihilism or moral nihilism rejects the possibility of absolute moral or ethical values.
Instead, good and evil are nebulous, and values addressing such are the product of nothing more than social and emotive pressures. Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the most commonly used and understood sense of the word today.
Get an answer for 'What is the conclusion of Lady Macbeth throughout the entire play Macbeth?' and find homework help for other Macbeth questions at eNotes. In conclusion, Shakespeare brilliantly executed a consistent and steady deterioration of the positivity of the word, as well as the sanity of his characters. It started in Act I, Lady Macbeth convinced Macbeth to do an evil deed that led to what his alleged fate was, even though no one said King Duncan had to be killed in order for the prophecy. Test information. 6 questions. 10 minutes. This is just one of 5 free GMAT critical reasoning tests available on benjaminpohle.com See the critical reasoning page for directions, tips and more information.
Max Stirner's attacks on systematic philosophy, his denial of absolutes, and his rejection of abstract concepts of any kind often places him among the first philosophical nihilists. For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed.
Even beyond the oppression of the state, though, are the constraints imposed by others because their very existence is an obstacle compromising individual freedom. Thus Stirner argues that existence is an endless "war of each against all" The Ego and its Own, trans. Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism Among philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche is most often associated with nihilism.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves.
The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" Will to Power. Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity: What I relate is the history of the next two centuries.
I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: For some time now our whole European culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade: Will to Power Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers.
Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations.
In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
InMartin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" The Question of Being.
Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" Nihilism:Conclusion Of Macbeth.
Macbeth - Critical Essay Evokes 8. Choose a play in which the relationship between a male and a female character changes significantly.
Show how the relationship between the two characters changes and discuss to what extent this illuminates a central idea of the benjaminpohle.comh. Use this list of 20 essay conclusion examples that covers a range of topics and essay formats as a stepping stone to inspire and inform your own writing.
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Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Canterbury Tales and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.