By Wendy WangKim Parker and Paul Taylor The public has mixed views about the changing role of women in the workplace and the impact this has had on family life. Today women make up almost half of the U.
Saul McLeodpublished People often get confused between the terms sex and gender.
Sex refers to biological differences between males and females. For example, chromosomes female XX, male XYreproductive organs ovaries, testeshormones oestrogen, testosterone. In the past people tend to have very clear ideas about what was appropriate to each sex and anyone behaving differently was regarded as deviant.
Today we accept a lot more diversity and see gender as a continuum i. Gender is determined by two biological factors: Hormones Hormones are chemical substances secreted by glands throughout the body and carried in the bloodstream.
The same sex hormones occur in both men and women, but differ in amounts and in the effect that they have upon different parts of the body. Testosterone is a sex hormone, which is more present in males than females, and affects development and behavior both before and after birth.
Testosterone, when released in the womb, causes the development of male sex organs at 7 weeks and acts upon the hypothalamus which results in the masculinization of the brain. Testosterone can cause typically male behaviors such as aggression, competitiveness, Visuospatial abilities, higher sexual drive etc.
An area of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain called the sexually dimorphic nucleus is much larger in male than in females. At the same time testosterone acts on the developing brain.
The brain is divided into two hemispheres, left and right. In all humans the left side of the brain is more specialised for language skills and the right for non-verbal and spatial skills.
Shaywitz et al used MRI scans to examine brain whilst men and women carried out language tasks and found that women used both hemispheres, left only used by men. It appears that in males brain hemispheres work more independently than in females, and testosterone influences this lateralization. Empirical Evidence The effects of testosterone have been confirmed in animal studies.
Young changed the sexual behavior of both male and female rats by manipulating the amount of male and female hormones that the rats received during their early development. A number of non-reproductive behaviors in rats are also effected by testosterone exposure around birth.
These included exploratory behavior, aggression and play. Young believed that the exposure had changed the sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN in the brain, as male rats had a larger SDN than females.
The results have proven to be highly replicable. Critical Evaluation Because this study was conducted in a lab it has low ecological validity. For example, in the lab hormones are injected in one single high dose. Whereas in real life, hormones tend to be released by the body in pulses, in a graduated fashion.
Therefore, the results might not be generalizable outside of the lab, to a more naturalistic setting. Ultimately psychologists must ask themselves whether in their research the ends justify the means.
By this we mean that all research using human or non-human animals must be considered in terms of the value of the results when compared to the cost both moral and financial of carrying out the work. Main criterion is that benefits must outweigh costs.
But benefits are almost always to humans and costs to animals. We should be cautious when extrapolating the results of animal research to a human population. This is because the physiologies e.
Also, the social and cultural variables within a human population are more complex when compared to social interactions between rats. The consequence of this means the external validity of the research is uncertain. However, a study by Hines suggests it might be possible to generalize the results to humans.
Hines studied female babies born to mothers who had been given injections of male hormones during pregnancy to prevent miscarriage.May 28, · The media plays an extremely influential role in modern American society.
Regardless of whether the media is influenced by the dominant beliefs of today’s culture, or if it determines them, the weight that advertisements carry on individual’s behavior is tangible in our society.
Nevertheless, in many of the modern societies today, there is no need for traditional gender roles, because both men and women are able to do many of the same necessary tasks, thereby making gender-specific behaviors irrelevant.
to analyze properly the roles of men and women in prehistory "we have a cultural bias that we bring to the effort and that colors our decision-making processes." Sexism is the result of that bias imposed by our process of acculturation.
differences in leadership styles between genders, but the fact that leadership styles in their roles are highly situational. This side of argument debates that neither of the genders are better in.
Breadwinner Moms Chapter 2: Public Views on Changing Gender Roles. By Wendy Wang, Kim Parker and Paul Taylor. The public has mixed views about the changing role of women in the workplace and the impact this has had on family life.
- Societies have always had traditional ways of life, such as, gender roles, celebrations, religions, educations, etc. Gender roles vary in different countries all around the world from relative status, labor, marriage, inheritance and socialization such as education and child care.