The prototype of this work was first set to paper in late
References and Further Reading 1. There is even now a four-volume encyclopedia devoted to the full range of possible topics. The core issues in Philosophical Aesthetics, however, are nowadays fairly settled see the book edited by Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, and the monograph by Sheppard, among many others.
Before this time, thoughts by notable figures made some forays into this ground, for instance in the formulation of general theories of proportion and harmony, detailed most specifically in architecture and music.
But the full development of extended, philosophical reflection on Aesthetics did not begin to emerge until the widening of leisure activities in the eighteenth century.
Therefore it is important, first of all, to have some sense of how Kant approached the subject. Criticisms of his ideas, and alternatives to them, will be presented later in this entry, but through him we can meet some of the key concepts in the subject by way of introduction.
Kant is sometimes thought of as a formalist in art theory; that is to say, someone who thinks the content of a work of art is not of aesthetic interest. But this is only part of the story. But our enjoyment of, for instance, the arbitrary abstract patterns in some foliage, or a color field as with wild poppies, or a sunset was, according to Kant, absent of such concepts; in such cases, the cognitive powers were in free play.
By design, art may sometimes obtain the appearance of this freedom: But when no definite concept is involved, as with the scattered pebbles on a beach, the cognitive powers are held to be in free play; and it is when this play is harmonious that there is the experience of pure beauty.
There is also objectivity and universality in the judgment then, according to Kant, since the cognitive powers are common to all who can judge that the individual objects are pebbles. These powers function alike whether they come to such a definite judgment or are left suspended in free play, as when appreciating the pattern along the shoreline.
This was not the basis on which the apprehension of pure beauty was obligatory, however. Perceiving the object in such cases is an end in itself; it is not a means to a further end, and is enjoyed for its own sake alone.
It is because Morality requires we rise above ourselves that such an exercise in selfless attention becomes obligatory. Judgments of pure beauty, being selfless, initiate one into the moral point of view.
The shared enjoyment of a sunset or a beach shows there is harmony between us all, and the world.
Indeed, Kant took it from eighteenth century theorists before him, such as the moral philosopher, Lord Shaftesbury, and it has attracted much attention since: Aesthetic Concepts The eighteenth century was a surprisingly peaceful time, but this turned out to be the lull before the storm, since out of its orderly classicism there developed a wild romanticism in art and literature, and even revolution in politics.
He said that they were not rule- or condition-governed, but required a heightened form of perception, which one might call taste, sensitivity, or judgment. His full analysis, however, contained another aspect, since he was not only concerned with the sorts of concepts mentioned above, but also with a set of others which had a rather different character.
For one can describe works of art, often enough, in terms which relate primarily to the emotional and mental life of human beings. These are evidently not purely aesthetic terms, because of their further uses, but they are still very relevant to many aesthetic experiences.
To be a bachelor, for instance, it is necessary to be male and unmarried, though of marriageable age, and together these three conditions are sufficient. Other theorists, such as Rudolph Arnheim and Roger Scruton, have held similar views.
Scruton, in fact, discriminated eight types of aesthetic concept, and we shall look at some of the others below. There is a famous curve, for instance, obtained by the nineteenth century psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, which shows how human arousal is quite generally related to complexity of stimulus.Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).
These obligations may be of either a legal or moral character. health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.
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An internet-based positive psychology intervention was investigated among persons with depression • Satisfaction was promising, symptom severity decreased, and health-related quality of life increased.
This section looks at the various aspects and principles relating to media literacy. The relationship between media literacy and media education is also explored and tips are provided for integrating media literacy into the classroom in subjects across the curriculum.
Archbishop Bruno Forte, Cardinal Luis Tagle, and Cardinal Peter Erdo at the press conference October 13, announcing the Synod on the Family's interim report. In the Internet's infancy, it astonished everyone with its ability to put seemingly everything onscreen, from profound to trivial and enlightening to irrelevant.
Which parts of Internet access, behavior and information you consider positive and which you call negative depend on your likes, dislikes and experiences.